1

1933- The Canadian Parliament suspended all Chinese immigration.

1776- 1st vote on Declaration of Independence for Britain’s North American colonies

1937; Amelia Earheart, the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean, was declared missing after flying over the Pacific Ocean.

1964 US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act into law

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1962 – Jackie Robinson became the first African American to be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame. 

1839- 1st state normal school in US opens, Lexington, Massachusetts, with 3 students

4

1827; New York City abolishes slavery

1776; the United States became free from Britain’s rule

5

1852 Frederick Douglass, fugitive slave, delivers his ‘What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?’ speech to the Ladies’ Anti-Slavery Society in Rochester, condemns the celebration as hypocritical sham

1950- the first American was reported to be killed in the Korean War.

6

1348 Papal bull of Pope Clement VI issued during the Black Death stating Jews not to blame and urging their protection

1942 Anne Frank (one of the most discussed Jewish victims of the Holocaust) goes into hiding with her family in After House, Amsterdam

7

1981 Sandra Day O’Connor nominated for the Supreme Court, 1st female Supreme Court justice

1928 Sliced bread sold for the first time by the Chillicothe Baking Company, Missouri, using a machine invented by Otto Frederick Rohwedder. Described as the greatest forward step in the baking industry since bread was wrapped.

8

1988; Stevie Wonder, a successful singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, who is blind, announces he will run for mayor of Detroit.

2020; actress Niya Riverawas declared missing after she failed to return from a boat excursion in California with her 4 year old son. 

9

1868; the 14th Amendment to the U.S. constitution is ratified, giving African Americans full citizenship and all persons of the United State due process of law.

1922 – Johnny Weissmuller became the first person to swim the 100 meters freestyle in less than a minute.

10

1925 : John T. Scopes, a science teacher in Tennessee, was charged with violating the state’s Butler Act, which made it illegal to teach evolution in Tennessee schools. The trial was based on the charge he did unlawfully and willfully teach in Tennessee schools certain theories that deny the story of the divine creation of man as told in the Bible. He was found guilty on July 21st and received a $100 fine.

1962, Martin Luther King Jr., a black social rights activist and leader of the American civil rights leader, was arrested during a demonstration in Georgia.

11

2000;  In Cincinnati the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the nation’s oldest black church, elected Rev. Vashti Murphy McKenzie as its 1st female bishop in its 213-year history.

In 1960, the novel “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee was first published by J.B. Lippincott and Co.

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1951; A mob tried to keep a Black family from moving into all-white Cicero, Ill.

1996; The House voted overwhelmingly to define marriage in federal law as a legal union of one man and one woman, no matter what states might say

13

1942; 5,000 Jews of Rovno, Polish Ukraine, were executed by Nazis.

2020; A US federal judge agreed to suspend a rule that requires women during the COVID-19 pandemic to visit a hospital, clinic or medical office to obtain an abortion pill

14

2019;  President Trump tweeted that four newly elected congresswomen of color should “go back” to their “broken and crime infested” countries. The comments were widely condemned as racist — and three of the four were born in the US. The four newly elected Democratic women are Rashida Tlaib of Michigan, Ocasio-Cortez of New York, Ayanna Pressley of Massachusetts and Ilhan Omar of Minnesota.

2006; A US federal appeals court reversed a ruling that struck down Nebraska’s same-sex marriage ban, which was approved by voters in 2000.

15

1912;  American Jim Thorpe won a gold medal for the decathlon at the Olympics in Stockholm; he also captured a gold medal for the pentathlon.

1883; Circus performer Charles Stratton, known to the world as General Tom Thumb, died

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1862; Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, an African American female  journalist led a crusade against lynching, was born in Holly Springs, Mississippi.

2019;  The US attorney for eastern New York said an exhaustive investigation has found there is “insufficient evidence” to prove “beyond a reasonable doubt” that the officer who arrested African American Eric Garner violated his civil rights and that the government’s investigation into Garner’s 2014 death “has been closed.” A medical examiner found a chokehold contributed to Garner’s death.

17

1993; President Clinton, with several Cabinet members in tow, traveled to Arnold, Mo., where he heard the governors of eight flood-stricken states appeal for more financial assistance; however, he held out little hope the government could offer a total bailout

1944; An explosion at Port Chicago, now the Concord Naval Weapons Station in Ca., killed 320 seamen when a pair of ammunition ships exploded. 10,000 tons of ammunition exploded. 202 of the victims were black enlisted men. The Navy court-martialed 50 black sailors for refusing to go back to work after the catastrophe. They were released from prison in 1946 with dishonorable discharges and reductions in rank. The story was later described by Robert Allen in his 1989 “The Port Chicago Mutiny.” In 1999 Pres. Clinton issued a pardon to Freddie Meeks, one of the last living convicted African American sailors.

18

1964; Riots erupted in the African American communities of NYC and Rochester, NY. The NYC race riot began in Harlem and spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn.

1943; The US Navy airship K-74 was shot down by anti-aircraft fire from a German U-boat.

19

1985- Vice President George Bush announced that Sharon Christa McAuliffe, a teacher from Concord, New Hampshire, will be the first teacher to travel in space. 

1998; Workers for Saturn Corp., a division of GM in Tennessee, authorized union leaders to call their first-ever strike.

20

1968; the first Special Olympics was held at Soldier Field.

2013; American journalist Helen Thomas, who broke through a number of barriers for women reporters and was known especially for her coverage of U.S. presidents, died in Washington, D.C.

21

1969; Neil Armstrong becomes the first person walks on the Moon

1967; Albert John Luthuli, president of the African National Congress (1952–60) and the first African to be awarded a Nobel Prize for Peace (1960), died after being struck by a train.

22

2013; In Ohio a federal judge granted marriage rights to a same-sex couple residing in the state as one of the partners neared death. Ohio at this time did not recognize such unions. This highlighted a new front for gay rights activists seeking to expand rights for couples living in states that are unfriendly to same-sex marriage.

2004; The September 11 commission’s final report was released. The 575-page report concluded that hijackers exploited “deep institutional failings within our government.” The report was released to White House officials the day before.

23

1999; Eileen Collins became the first woman to command a U.S. space flight

1967; A riot began in Detroit as African Americans and the city’s police department were involved in violent confrontations following a police raid on an illegal drinking club; the unrest, which lasted for five days, is considered one of the catalysts of the militant Black Power movement.

24

1969; American actress and singer Jennifer Lopez—who was one of the highest-paid Latina actresses in the history of Hollywood and later found crossover success in the music industry with a series of pop albums—was born

1979; Ted Bundy was found guilty of murdering two sorority sisters. Although his exact number of victims is unknown, Bundy confessed to more than 30 murders. He was executed in the electric chair on January 24th, 1989.

25

1952; Puerto Rico became a self governing commonwealth of the U.S.

1974; The US Supreme Court ruled in Milliken v Bradley that desegregation cannot be required across school district lines.

26

 2016; Hillary Clinton became the first woman to be nominated for president by a major political party at the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia

1990; The Americans with Disabilities Act was signed into law by President George H.W. Bush

27

1919; The Chicago Race Riot of 1919 was ignited after a young black man was stoned and drowned in Lake Michigan for swimming in an area reserved for whites.

2019;  Off-duty Los Angeles police Officer Juan Diaz was shot and killed at a Lincoln Heights taco stand early today. Authorities searched for a suspect, believed to be a member of the Avenues gang. On Aug. 2 Francisco Talamantes (23); Cristian Facundo (20) and Ashlynn Smith (18), all of Temecula, were booked on suspicion of murder and held without bail

28

1868; The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution—which granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans and slaves who had been emancipated after the Civil War—entered into force.

1865; The American Dental Association proposed its first code of ethics.

29

1975; President Ford became the first U.S. president to visit the site of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz in Poland as he paid tribute to the camp’s victims.

1999; California Governor Gray Davis abandoned the state’s effort to preserve Proposition 187, a divisive voter-approved ban on schooling and other public benefits for illegal immigrants.

30

 2019; A US appeals court said it had upheld a ruling by a US judge who held three large Chinese banks in contempt for refusing to comply with subpoenas in a probe into violations of sanctions on North Korea, opening the way for heavy daily fines.

 1965; The Social Security Act of 1965 was signed by the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson which established the nation’s Medicare and Medicaid programs, financed by higher Social Security payroll taxes.

31

 1921; Whitney M. Young, Jr., who spearheaded the drive for equal opportunity for African Americans in industry and U.S. government service while he was head of the National Urban League (1961–71), was born. 2020;  The US Supreme Court declined by a 5-4 vote to halt the Trump administration’s construction of portions of the border wall with Mexico following a recent lower court ruling that the administration improperly diverted money to the project